Figure to ground

How to use figure-to-ground in photography - Portraits Refine

One of the most important principles is if a photo has strong figure to ground. Pretty much what figure-to-ground is having strong contrast between your subject and the background. For example, having a light subject against a dark subject, or a dark subject against a light background. Figure 1: Notice how easy it is to see the black dot against the white background Figure to ground is when your subject and your background have a strong contrast between them. This makes for a dramatic, sometimes tense, photograph In general, the Gestalt Principle of Figure-Ground refers to space, forms, or shapes within a specific composition. Basically, what this means, is Figure-Ground is the state in which we view elements as either the object of focus or the background. To break these terms down even further, consider the following a deliberate inversion of figure ground relationships, Used often in graphic design, especially text Ambiguous Figure Ground An illusion of two viewpoints, similar to figure ground reversal, the main goal is to create two distinct images rather than binding one togethe The figure-ground relationship is one of the Gestalt Principles of Perception. It suggests that any designs or elements are always differentiated by our perception of figure and ground. The figure is the main focus of the design. The ground is anything besides the main focus like background

Figure-ground perception refers to the tendency of the visual system to simplify a scene into the main object that we are looking at (the figure) and everything else that forms the background (or ground). The concept of figure-ground perception is often illustrated with the classic faces or vases illusion, also known as the Rubin vase The photo has a strong 'figure-to-ground' — meaning, there is a strong separation between the subject (figure) and the background (ground) To analyze this photo, I have applied a 'gaussian blur' in Photoshop, to see even if the image is blurry, you can still see the silhouette quite well A figure-ground diagram is a mapping technique used to illustrate the relationship between built and unbuilt space in cities. Land coverage of buildings is visualized as solid mass (figure), while public spaces formed by streets, parks and plazas are represented as voids (ground).In urban planning, this simple yet powerful graphic tool is used to explore built form patterns and the continuity.

Figure To Ground in Photography Streetbount

A stable figure ground relationship is one in which a person can easily distinguish a figure and a ground. To achieve such a composition, designers need to make one aspect dominant over the other. For example, they may make the figure dominant over the ground or the ground dominant over the figure Figure-ground (perception) Gestalt Psychology. The Gestalt theory was founded in the 20th century in Austria and Germany as a reaction against the... Examples. The Rubin vase faces-vase drawing that Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin described exemplifies one of the key... Development. Figure-ground. Figure to ground allows your brain to determine shapes, sizes, distance and other optical illusions that exist in photography (it also applies to drawing, painting, and other 2D arts, but for this article the focus is on photography and how you can use it successfully) Visual Figure Ground. Figure ground is the ability to pick out an object within a busy background. Children with poor figure ground are easily overwhelmed on a page with a lot of words. They simply get lost in detail Figure ground is a visual relationship between foreground and background. It's a type of perceptual grouping which is necessary for recognizing objects through vision. This series of three diagrammatic models explores the concept of figure ground through different methods of making

How To Use Figure to Ground Photography Compositio

A simple figure-ground is created when coherent, independent objects are juxtaposed in a space functioning as the surrounding ground. In these compositions, figures are positive and active while its ground is always negative and passive. Figures are clearly visible and separate from the background within simple figure-ground relationships The figure to the ground relationship is one of the most important, but often overlooked concepts in photography. Painters have been using it for ages, but with photography, the methodology is a bit different, so it's not always easy to translate painting tools In this tutorial, I will show you to create a custom map with Mapbox to create a figure ground drawing

As both figure and ground, the train car points to a singular catastrophe and also a civic disaster. If you happen to see the photo on Instagram, by the way, the experience of moving through the city as you scroll from top to bottom to discover the horror accentuates the effect Figure and ground is a concept drawn from Gestalt psychology by media theorist Marshall McLuhan in the early 1970s. This concept underpins the meaning of his famous phrase, The medium is the message Figure-ground perception holds that we tend to separate images into figure, or object, and ground, or background. Some common examples include the famous image of the old woman and the young lady. Introduction to Figure and Ground. This week we'll be discussing the concept of figure and ground. For the most part, figure and ground are easily distinguishable and it may seem like a Duh! concept. But sometimes, when a work is interesting, the artist is playing with our understanding of the separation between figure and ground

Street Photography Composition Lesson #2: Figure-to-groun

Figure-ground organization is a type of perceptual grouping that is a vital necessity for recognizing objects through vision. In Gestalt psychology it is known as identifying a figure from the background. An example of Rubin vase. When two fields have a common border, and one is seen as figure and the other as ground, the immediate. A figure-ground diagram or drawing is a way of identifying a figure from the background by using contrast. It shows the relationship between positive and negative spaces, shadows and light or solids and voids. For example, the letters written right here are figures/solids whereas the white screen behind is the background/voids Figure-Ground is the ability to locate a form or objects within a busy field without getting confused by the background or surrounding images. This involves screening out irrelevant visual material. The ability to see an object or form as distinct from other objects/forms or from the background is important when presented with a lot of visual.

Figure To Ground - Photography Gcs

In the mean time we talk about Figure-Ground Worksheets to Print, scroll down to see particular related photos to complete your ideas. figure-ground shape worksheet, printable figure-ground worksheets and alphabet worksheets are three main things we want to present to you based on the gallery title Figure ground creativity. Working to establish clear relationships with figure and ground in a Web page layout is important, but clear delineations are not always best. A design can be imbued with interesting character and enhanced effectiveness by blurring these lines, so to speak. Here are a few examples of creative figure ground confusion Without figure-ground organization, your map will appear flat and your readers will find it hard to focus on the more important things. In the figure below, can you tell what part of the map is the focus? There are a number of ways you can promote figure-ground organization. In this blog entry, I illustrate a few of the easiest and perhaps most. Looking through the internet, f ind 9 images that demonstrates figure to ground (3 dark figure to light, 3 light figure to dark, and 3 shallow depth of field). Label what type of figure to ground it is (e.g. shallow depth of field, light figure to dark.) ALSO label the composition style The figure of our attention - the thing that pushes us forward or stops us in our tracks - is what causes us to shift our perception from ground to figure and allows for paradigm shifting. The reason to develop the skill of paradigm shifting is to increase your capacity to respond in a full and present moment way to the events in your life.

Figure Ground. Figure Ground is the ability to perceive the foreground from the background in a visual array. Impairments in this area of visual perception may interfere with finding specific pictures, symbols, letters, numbers or words in a book, on a board, or on other visual material In figure ground shows us about behavioral experiments on your role or figure ground photography. The two figures are identical in size, such as the principle of Prägnanz, that you were asked to take a hearing test. Exposure is vital to getting the most effective us Figure ground Relationship is a clear distinction between figure and ground. A light figure on a dark background, or a dark figure on a light background that's the clearest possible way to define your subject. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates

Figure/Ground Study Our eyes and brain constantly attempt to arrange and interpret data and make sense of random patterns. We find figures in old tree stumps, clouds etc. Positive/negative space or shape and figure/ground refer to the phenomena of some shapes taking on substance while others subside into the background. Humans are built to recogniz Figure to ground คือ การจัดวางสิ่งที่เราต้องการสื่อสาร ให้ชัดเจนอยู่บนพื้นหลังที่ไม่กลืนกัน ถ้าจะให้นึกภาพออกง่ายๆเขาก็มักจะใช้. Sep 30, 2014 - Graphic Design Assignment 1- Figure- Ground Relationships . See more ideas about figure-ground, graphic design, graphic

In order to create a figure ground map of the building footprints, we want to delete the polygons which represent the plots. Open the Attribute Table of the opt_1_figure layer. Click the icon to Select by Expression. In the Expression box, type: oa_type = 'plot' Click Select and close the dialog box Figure-ground relationships also refer to illusion of making design elements appear to move forward or recede. Figure-ground is a rather simple dichotomy that literally defines our ability to visually separate elements based on contrasts such as light and dark, black and white. We best understanding things in duality and our visual perception.

‘Face and Figure: The Sculpture of Gaston Lachaise,’ at

Gestalt Principle of Figure-Ground: The Ultimate Guide

  1. g our perception of surfaces, shapes and objects, as demonstrated by the pictures in Figure 1.These pictures are highly ambiguous and we may perceive either side as the figure.
  2. Figure-ground perception. Mary Peterson and Elizabeth Salvagio (2010), Scholarpedia, 5 (4):4320. Figure 1: Example of a figure (black) on a ground (white). For two contiguous regions in the visual field, the common perceptual outcome is that the edge between them appears to be a boundary for only one of them, and that region— the figure.
  3. ation or perception refers to the ability to separate the elements of a visual image on the basis of contrast (e.g., light, dark), to perceive an object (figure) against a background (ground). A classic illustration of figure-ground perception is the Rubin vase, a simple black and white image which can be seen as two dark.
  4. e which elements will be perceived as figure and which as ground are: † The figure has a definite shape, whereas the ground.
  5. Sep 30, 2014 - Graphic Design Assignment 1- Figure-Ground Relationships. See more ideas about graphic design, graphic, design
  6. Figure-ground coding has also been observed in the form of enhancement of responses to the inside of a figure relative to the outside of a figure 20,21,22, which is also independent of attention 12
  7. The Figure / Ground distinction was first introduced in psychology by the Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin and publicized in his 1915 study (Edgar Rubin, Synsoplevede Figurer, 1915, German trans. Visuell Wahrgenomme Figuren, 1921) probably inspired by French prints of the 18th (as pointed out by Gombrich 1978)

Gestalt: Figure to Ground Flashcards Quizle

Mario Giacomelli: Figure/Ground Mario Giacomelli (1925-2000) is widely regarded as one of the foremost Italian photographers of the twentieth century. Born into poverty, he lived his entire life in Senigallia, a town on the Adriatic coast in Italy's Marche region Visual figure ground activities often help struggling readers and learners, including kids with dyslexia or other learning differences, a.k.a. (homeschool, science activity, preschool, kindergarten, 1st grade, 2nd grade, 3rd grade, 4th grade). Sensory receptors receive information from the environment, which is then combined with previously. A Figure lies in foreground and the Ground is the background. The visual system uses a probabilistic model to determine the Figure and the Ground. Generally it holds that smaller and more recognisable objects are nearly always the Figure and the surrounding with more homogeneous characteristics is the Ground The two, figure ground, or positive shape, and negative shape define each other. There may only be one figure in a simple image, but there may be several figure ground relationships in a complex image. Artists and designers consider figure ground relationships and the relationship of the figure ground to the format to capture our interest

Gestalt Principle: Figure-ground Relationship

For instance, the earth ground symbol is also used as a common ground symbol or a 0V reference. This is a bit misleading because a 0V reference is not actually connected to earth ground. Figure 6 shows various ground connections using the common/earth ground symbol. Figure 6. Various ground connections using the earth ground symbol Figure-ground perception is the ability to filter out irrelevant visual information so that you can concentrate on what matters. This enables a child to locate precise visual information in the midst of a cluttered context. For example, we use figure-ground perception when reading a flyer on a busy bulletin board Figure 1 shows the resistance values of the three rods in percentage of the resistance of the narrower rod. Figure 1. Effect of rod diameter . If the soil resistivity varies, so does the ground resistance. The percentages will remain constant. We conclude from this analysis that the rod diameter has no significant effect on the resistance to. Figure ground. The ability to filter out irrelevant visual details and focus on selected images among numerous visual images. a) b)Suggest an experience suitable for pre-schoolers for the skill of visual discrimination (the ability to detect small differences between objects). Matching games which require close examination to determine differences

Figures on a Ground disrupts singular definitions on Minimal art, while staying true to this specific characteristic. The notion of space and perception is particularly present in the installation of German artist Julia Mangold (b. 1966), which is composed of imposing rectangular volumes in wood, covered with pigments, lacquer and wax the supply source via the effective ground-fault current path. Figures 250-12 and 250-13 (2) Equipment Grounding. Metal parts of electrical equipment : are grounded (connected to the earth) to reduce induced volt-age on metal parts from exterior lightning so as to prevent fire The Figure/Ground law examines how the eye can separate shapes in a design from the background of that design. The Prägnanz law shows how our eyes can simplify complex shapes into simple shapes. The law of Closure refers to our tendency to complete an incomplete shape in order to rationalize the whole

The figure ground principle is responsible for investigating how the eye can differentiate shapes in a design from the rest of the background. This principle overlaps with the closure principle in that it takes advantage of the way the brain processes negative space.. The background is often seen as the area in which the figure rests. Accounting for it and estimating it is how we calculate our Course Over Ground. To do this, you will need a dead reckoning plot - this will be a series of estimated fixes and recordings of speed lines. If you are sailing in an area with known current effects, make the COG adjustment after each DR plot Turner syndrome has been both figure and ground in my life. After my diagnosis at the age of 15, it became ground for my choices. In a state of complete denial - other than the medical necessities such as frequent doctor visits, hormone replacement therapy, blood draws, and bone scans - I was a typical teenager

Figure-Ground Perception in Psychology - Verywell Min

  1. 1,511 Followers, 3,310 Following, 38 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Figure | Ground Art Gallery (@figuregroundgallery
  2. Figure and ground can enhance or detract from each other, and organizing the two in relation to each other is one of the more important aspects of design. It sets a context for how your design communicates and how it will be interpreted. White space is to be regarded as an active element, not a passive background.
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  4. Is there a formula to calculate ground distance traveled given rate of climb and true airspeed? 6. Does ground speed represent the horizontal speed measured at sea level? 3. How to calculate Equivalent Airspeed immediately from Calibrated Airspeed? 1. What was the lowest ground speed landing? 3
  5. For Figure Home Equity Line, our APRs can be as low as 3.00% for the most qualified applicants and will be higher for other applicants, depending on credit profile and the state where the property is located. For example, for a borrower with a CLTV of 45% and a credit score of 800 who is eligible for and chooses to pay a 4.99% origination fee.

The figure shows a sample of H-atoms having electron revolving in higher orbit 'n'. If this electron makes transition from this orbit 'n' to ground state, No. of paschen lines emitted are A ground plane is a useful tool to combat digital crosstalk, which is strictly speaking an internal EMC phenomenon. Crosstalk coupling between two tracks is mediated via inductive, capacitive and common ground impedance routes, usually a combination of all three (Figure 5.14).The effect of the ground plane is to significantly reduce the common ground impedance Z G, by between 40 - 70dB dict.cc | Übersetzungen für 'figure-ground' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen,. Visual Figure Ground. the ability to perceive and locate a form or object within a busy field without getting confused by the background or surrounding images. This skill keeps children from getting lost in details. Children with poor figure-ground become easily confused with too much print on the page, affecting their concentration and attention

Figure-ground organization is a type of perceptual grouping that is a vital necessity for recognizing objects through vision. In Gestalt psychology it is known as identifying a figure from the background. An example of Rubin vase. When two fields have a common border, and one is seen as figure and the other as ground, the immediate. Figure and ground. Graphic design is the art of using form and color to successfully convey a message, but this is not as easy as it sounds. The design process is one of trial and error, and it often takes many iterations to create a design that clearly communicates what you're trying to say A figure-ground diagram is a two-dimensional map of an urban space that shows the relationship between built and unbuilt space. It is used in analysis of urban design and planning. It is akin to but not the same as a Nolli map which denotes public space both within and outside buildings and also akin to a block pattern diagram that records public and private property as simple rectangular blocks By Aileen Buckley, Mapping Center Lead. In a previous blog entry, I discussed some of the major design principles used in cartography, including figure-ground organization, which is the spontaneous separation of the figure in the foreground from an amorphous background.Cartographers use this design principle to help their map readers find the area of the map or page to focus on The ground then throws any other shapes as figures into the foreground. In the diagram below, when A is idenfiied as a figure, E becomes the ground. B, C and D consequently appear as figures (being similar in some way to A helps this)

Composition: Figure to Ground - ERIC KI

These are some figure and ground examples posted by my tutor, Barbara Brownies, in a group discussion in response to the topic of 'ambiguity' yesterday. However, I found these examples are useful to illustrate the figure-ground situation with a minimalist approach. According to Oxford dictionary, 'ambiguity' refers to the quality of being open to more tha Figure and ground definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now

The figure-ground diagram - MORPHOCOD

Figure/ground organization, as pioneered by Edgar Rubin [2], is a step of perceptual organization which assigns a contour to one of the two abutting re-gions. It is commonly thought to follow region segmentation, it is an essential step in forming our perception of surfaces, shapes and objects, as vividly demon The test comprises 40 items that assess recognition abilities regarding spatial relationships, visual discrimination, figure-ground perception (recognition of overlapping figures), visual closure and visual memory. The examinee is required to match the target shape to one of four alternatives. Correct responses are assigned one point each,. GOAL. To understand and apply the principle of figure/groundas it applies to the two-dimensional picture plane.DISCUSSION. At the threshold of perception we see objects against backgrounds. The whole visual world may be thought of as a continuous series of figure/ground relationshipswith objects overlapping or interacting with their backgrounds Figure Ground - Gestalt Theory and Photographic Composition. June 29, 2016 Techniques. Early last century, German and Austrian psychologists developed a school of thought known as Gestalt, a German word meaning shape.. It was their goal to learn how the mind perceived figure ground and processed visual input based upon pattern seeking 2- Calculate the Tolerable Touch Voltages for 70 Kg person, if 120 mm thick layer of crushed rock is spread on the earth's surface above ground grid in a switchyard, noting that: Crush rock resistivity ρs = 3000 Ωm

Figure-ground is the ability to perceive and locate a form or object within a busy field without getting distracted by the background or surrounding images. There are a variety of figure-ground activities included in this download each varies in skill level. All instructions are provided and there Figure = the focal point Ground = background (we're NOT talking about the literal ground/sky) 3. • Figure-ground refers to a gestalt principle about the way we visually perceive images • Basically, it illustrates our own cognitive ability to separate elements based upon contrast: dark vs. light, black vs. white, red vs. green, there vs. The figure-ground relationship video also touches on other techniques like dynamic symmetry, gamut, arabesques, and coincidences to create a masterpiece. These are all the same techniques used by master painters and they can be applied to your art, whether it's photography, painting, or sculpting to clearly communicate to your viewer with power The figure/Ground relationship is the most basic of all relationships in design. It refers to the relationship between positive and negative shapes, and is used as an aid in 2-D composition. In art/design, one way we define space is by placing objects in it. This creates a relationship (object-in-space)


Leather Wrap Coffee Table. 0. Fleur Noir Coffee Tabl Figure/Ground Relationship. The figure/Ground relationship is the most basic of all relationships in design. It refers to the relationship between positive and negative shapes, and is used as an aid in 2-D composition. In art/design, one way we define space is by placing objects in it. This creates a relationship (object-in-space) Research on figure/ground perception in infancy has emphasized action perception and utilized dynamic stimuli to examine the relationship between motion cues and figure/ground perception (Arterberry, Craton, & Yonas, 1993; Ross-Sheehy, Perone, Vecera, & Oakes, 2016).To our knowledge, few studies have examined the use of static cues in figure/ground perception by infants

DOWNLOAD 2 FREE Figure Ground and Spatial Reasoning Activities. Crocodiles, Flamingos and Monkeys Visual Perceptual Packet - This digital download includes 22 pages of worksheets to practice visual discrimination, spatial reasoning, figure ground, visual closure, form constancy, visual motor skills and coloring. FIND OUT MORE INFORMATION Figure ground From the course: Universal Principles of Design. Start my 1-month free trial Buy this course ($34.99 *) Transcripts View Offline Figure ground - Hi, I'm William Lidwell, and this. Figure From Ground Malone, NY August 18, 2018-Utica, NY @ The Other Side September 22, 2018- Brainardsville, NY Private Event October 3, 2018- Ithaca, NY @ Sacred Root Kava Lounge October 4, 2018-Catkill, NY @ HiLo November 24, 2018- Boston, MA @ The Midway Cafe Figure From Ground is a collaborative praxis of sound exploration and performance

Figure-Ground In Transport Logos DesignMantic: The

figure/ground fourpiece from southern maryland, formed late 2010, active until early 2012, ex-Lonely Vibraphone South, released 08 August 2011 1. 2.11.11 2. Shaking Hands 3. Breath 4. Giving Up The Ghos Figure-ground modulation, i.e., the enhancement of neuronal responses evoked by the figure relative to the background, has three complementary components: edge modulation (boundary detection), center modulation (region filling), and background modulation (background suppression). However, the neuron

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Figure-ground (perception) - Wikipedi

Browse 93,519 figure ground stock photos and images available or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. infinite symbol with creative ideas - figure ground stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. human hand cupped to catch the fresh water from lake - figure ground stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. Figure-ground exists in practically everything we visually perceive, whether a scene, a composition, a website, a logo or an icon. Figure-ground is stable when objects are distinguishable from the background and the background holds no interest. Stable figure-ground provides a setting for objects and allows us to focus attention where we want it Figure-ground (FG) segregation that separates an object from the rest of the image is a fundamental problem in vision science. A majority of neurons in monkey V2 showed the selectivity to border ownership (BO) that indicates which side of a contour owns the border. Although BO could be a precursor of FG segregation, the contribution of BO to FG segregation has not been clarified

Calculate the Upper Limit of ground resistance (Rg) of the grid if soil resistivity is 180 Ω/m for a ground grid shown in below figure. Solution: L (Total length grounding grid conductors) = (4 x 200) + (6 x 150) + (6 x 50) = 2000 meters. A = 200 x 150 = 30,000. Plugging in the numbers for the formula Step 2. Calculate the voltage by multiplying the resistance and current together. The equation to measure voltage is V=R*I where R represents resistance, I is current and V is voltage, measured in volts. So, if you have a resistance of 12 ohms and a current of five amps, the voltage of the phase-to-phase connection is 60 volts Figure & Ground is at WFMU. November 11 at 9:19 AM · West Orange, NJ ·. Spinning a 3hr set on @wfmu TONIGHT (11/11) at midnight - 3am EST come thru and get comfy on the waves @ 91.1 and 91.9 FM in Jersey & NY or online at wfmu.org. Bass-heavy broadcasting from Flatbush BK & uploading the playlist in real time. . 33

Figure and Ground | Flickr. This user has no public photos. One Crown Place, City of London, April 2021 by Figure and Ground. Shoreditch Village, April 2021 by Figure and Ground. 1. 21 Buckle Street, City of London, April 2021 by Figure and Ground. 1. 100 Liverpool Street, City of London, April 2021 by Figure and Ground Figure and Ground Fri 2 July 2021 : 1:00pm - 2:00pm Join Drawing Biennial 2021 artists Phoebe Boswell, Mandy El-Sayegh, Jake Grewal and Matthew Krishanu in conversation with Isabel Seligman, Monument Trust Curator of Modern and Contemporary Drawing at the British Museum. Four artists who use figuration in their work, or different. The ground is seen as uniformed material and seems to extend behind the figure. The contour separating the figure from the ground appears to belong to the figure. (Goldstein, pp. 156-159) Overall, there are no correct interpretations to what the figure is and what the ground is; it is the individual's choice Ground Lift Coefficient for Minimum Takeoff Ground Run Distance (16) Example Given: W = 56,000 lbs VTO = 1.2 Vstall p = 75% S = 1000 ft2 T 0 = 2400 BHP/engine CLmax = 2.4 = 0.25 This is a propeller driven aircraft with a shaft (brake) horsepower of 2400 per engine. We want to calculate the minimum ground run at sea-level in a standard atmosphere In Figure Ground Game - an exhibition at SCI-Arc, curated by Kipnis and created in close partnership with architect Stephen Turk and his team of John Yurchyk, Paul Adair, and Ryan Docken - the viewer hovers over a model city, before walking into its close-up inside the gallery and joining the 'conga line,' as Kipnis calls it, of giant figures within

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Figure-ground segregation, segmenting images by the visual system into figures and background, is the first processing step on the way to visual perception and relies on three comple-mentary processes: boundary detection, region filling, and back-ground suppression. By combining psychophysics, functiona Figure&Ground, Amphoe Chiang Rai, Chiang Rai, Thailand. 19,471 likes · 4 talking about this · 23,362 were here. The 1st Figures Museum Cafe' in Chiangrai, Thailand Museum . Coffee . Dessert . Mea Calculate Heat Loss to the Ground with Marc Rosenbaum Marc Rosenbaum, Director of Engineering, South Mountain Company and one of HeatSpring's expert instructors, taught a free live lecture to more than 200 architects and builders last week Figure 1. Unloaded, solidly grounded generator with a line-to-ground fault on phase a . 2. Find the ratio Xₒ/X 1. Xₒ/X 1 = 5%/15% = 0.333. Note: Xₒ/X 1 < 3 —> system effectively grounded . 3. Find the subtransient three-phase fault current in the generator windings. I f3.